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Preventing breast cancer - sources and resources

This page presents a list of sources and resources used in article about preventing breast cancer.


The hazards of wearing a bra
A slideshow that talks about bra wearing and some other factors contributing to breast cancer. Warning: it has some graphic images.

Vitamin D

Calcium and vitamin D. Their potential roles in colon and breast cancer prevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;889:107-19.

Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: the NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 May;8(5):399-406.

Vitamin D and Cancer


The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2003;5(5):235-8. Epub 2003 Jul 29.

Iodine and breast cancer
Quotes from various books showing there is a link between iodine and breast cancer

Uptake and antitumoral effects of iodine and 6-iodolactone in differentiated and undifferentiated human prostate cancer cell lines.
Normal and cancerous prostate cells can take up iodine, and depending on the chemical form, it exerts antiproliferative and apoptotic effects both in vitro and in vivo.

Iodine and Breast Cancer
A short article discussing the importance of iodine.

Bra wearing

Singer & Grismaijer, Dressed to Kill

Patologias mamarias generadas por el uso sostenido y seleccion incorrecta del brassier en pacientes que acuden a la consulta de mastologia
A study from 2010 showing that bra wearing causes breast lesions.


Estrogen and Insulin Crosstalk: Breast Cancer Risk Implications. The Nurse Practitioner. 2003;28(5):12-23. Includes recommendations to lower bioavailable estrogen and insulin through lifestyle changes.

Evaluation of the synergistic effect of insulin resistance and insulin-like growth factors on the risk of breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2004 Feb 15;100(4):694-700. "The results of the current study suggest that insulin resistance and IGFs may synergistically increase the risk of breast carcinoma."

Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study. Ann Oncol. 2001 Nov;12(11):1533-8. Direct associations with breast cancer risk emerged for glycemic index and glycemic load. High glycemic index foods, such as white bread, increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.3) while the intake of pasta, a medium glycemic index food, seemed to have no influence (OR = 1.0). Findings were consistent across different strata of menopausal status, alcohol intake, and physical activity level.

Insulin and cancer. Integr Cancer Ther. 2003 Dec;2(4):315-29.

Dietary energy restriction in breast cancer prevention. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2003 Jan;8(1):133-42.

Dietary glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the Women's Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Jan;13(1):65-70. "Although we did not find evidence that a high glycemic diet increases overall breast cancer risk, the increase in risk in premenopausal women with low levels of physical activity suggests the possibility that the effects of a high glycemic diet may be modified by lifestyle and hormonal factors."

Premenopausal dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, glycemic load, and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Nov;12(11 Pt 1):1153-8. In this study lean (premenopausal) women had lower risk or breast cancer the more carbohydrates they ate, whereas overweight women had higher risk the more carbohydrates they ate. Also study found no association between fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

Energy sources and risk of cancer of the breast and colon-rectum in Italy. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;472:51-5. In this study, high intake of starch, and saturated fat were linked with an increase risk of cancer. High intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (chiefly derived from olive and seed oils) were protective for breast cancer.

Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of incident breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Jun;12(6):573-7. Dietary glycemic index and load were not associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer after adjustment for multiple breast cancer risk factors.

Omega-3 fatty acids

Long-chain n-3-to-n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios in breast adipose tissue from women with and without breast cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2002;42(2):180-5. "We conclude that total n-6 PUFAs may be contributing to the high risk of breast cancer in the United States and that LC n-3 PUFAs, derived from fish oils, may have a protective effect."

Opposing effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on mammary carcinogenesis: The Singapore Chinese Health Study. Br J Cancer. 2003 Nov 3;89(9):1686-92. "...high levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish/shellfish (marine n-3 fatty acids) were significantly associated with reduced risk." Also, women consuming little omega-3 fatty acids and lots of omega-6 fatty acids had a higher risk of breast cancer.

Regulation of tumor angiogenesis by dietary fatty acids and eicosanoids. Nutr Cancer. 2000;37(2):119-27. "High-fat, n-6 fatty acid-rich diets were associated with a relatively poor prognosis in breast cancer patients; in a nude mouse model the same diet enhanced breast cancer progression, whereas n-3 fatty acids exerted suppressive effects that were associated with impaired angiogenesis."

N-3 and N-6 fatty acids in breast adipose tissue and relative risk of breast cancer in a case-control study in Tours, France. Int J Cancer. 2002 Mar 1;98(1):78-83. "We found inverse associations between breast cancer-risk and n-3 fatty acid levels in breast adipose tissue."

Estrogen & Flaxseed

Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2012 Dec;17(6):402-14.
This meta-analysis provides evidence of a non-significant increase in breast cancer risk associated with ever OC use, but the risk for long-term OC users is significantly greater. However, the latter finding is based on only a limited number of studies.

Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer: a prospective study of young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Oct;19(10):2496-502.
Current use of oral contraceptives carries an excess risk of breast cancer. Levonorgestrel used in triphasic preparations may account for much of this elevation in risk.

Supplementation with flaxseed alters estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Feb;79(2):318-25.

Dietary flaxseed inhibits human breast cancer growth and metastasis and downregulates expression of insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Nutr Cancer. 2002;43(2):187-92.
In conclusion, flaxseed inhibited the established human breast cancer growth and metastasis in a nude mice model, and this effect is partly due to its downregulation of insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor receptor expression.

Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components reduce mammary tumor growth at a late stage of carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis, Vol 17, 1373-1376. (Rats were fed diets with flax oil, 5% flaxseed, 2.5% flaxseed or its purified lignan.)

Multifunctional aspects of the action of indole-3-carbinol as an antitumor agent. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;889:204-13. Indole-3-carbinol, a compound found in cruciferous vegetables, decreases the carsinogenic form of estrogen and increases the protective form.

Estrogen metabolism and the diet-cancer connection: rationale for assessing the ratio of urinary hydroxylated estrogen metabolites. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Apr;7(2):112-29.

Vitamin E

Does Vitamin E Prevent Breast Cancer? LE Magazine May 2002 In-depth coverage based on reviewing the scientific studies made about vitamin E and breast cancer. Evidence points to the form of vitamin E called tocotrienols as effective in preventing breast cancer - and not alpha-tocopherol (the one commonly available as a supplement).

Vitamin E and breast cancer prevention: current status and future potential. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2003 Jan;8(1):91-102. "Recent reviews of epidemiological data suggest that dietary source vitamin E may provide some protection against breast cancer, while vitamin E supplements do not."


The inhibition of the estrogenic effects of pesticides and environmental chemicals by curcumin and isoflavonoids. Environ Health Perspect 1998 Dec;106(12):807-12. "A combination of curcumin and isoflavonoids was able to inhibit the induced growth of ER-positive cells up to 95%. ...a mixture of curcumin and isoflavonoids is the most potent inhibitor against the growth of human breast tumor cells."

Effects of soy phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein on breast cancer growth. 1: Ann Pharmacother. 2001 Sep;35(9):1118-21. "Genistein and daidzein at low concentrations were found to stimulate breast tumor growth in in vitro and in vivo animal studies, and antagonize the antitumor effect of tamoxifen in vitro. At high concentrations, genistein inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the effect of tamoxifen in vitro."

Genotoxic activity of four metabolites of the soy isoflavone daidzein. Mutat Res. 2003 Dec 9;542(1-2):43-8. Thus, both reductive and oxidative metabolites of the soy isoflavone daidzein exhibit genotoxic (damaging to DNA) potential in vitro.

Combined inhibition of estrogen-dependent human breast carcinoma by soy and tea bioactive components in mice. Int J Cancer. 2004 Jan 1;108(1):8-14. This study found that soy and green tea inhibited breast cancer growth, and that that the combination of them two was even better, reducing tumor weight by 72%.

Organochlorines and pesticides

Mixtures of Four Organochlorines Enhance Human Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation.
Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Apr;109(4):391-7. "...the combination effect can be called synergistic. Our findings strongly suggest that there are mixture effects even when each mixture component is present at concentrations that individually produce insignificant effects."

Long-term exposure to beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) promotes transformation and invasiveness of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Sep 1;66(5):831-40.

Organophosphorous pesticides in breast cancer progression. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 2003 Jan;35(1):1-9.

Breast cancer and serum organochlorine residues.
Occup Environ Med. 2003 May;60(5):348-51. Mean levels of total DDT and HCB were significantly higher for breast cancer patients than for controls.

Xenoestrogens and Breast Cancer: Nowhere to Run - Article about breast cancer and organochlorines, including tips how to avoid your exposure.


Breast cancer mortality after diagnostic radiography: findings from the U.S. Scoliosis Cohort Study. Spine. 2000 Aug 15;25(16):2052-63.

Breast cancer risk among the survivors of atomic bomb and patients exposed to therapeutic ionising radiation. 1: Eur J Surg Oncol. 2003 Jun;29(5):475-9.

Breast cancer in women after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. Lancet Oncol. 2003 Apr;4(4):207-14.


A report on curcumin's anti-cancer effects by Terri Mitchell LE Magazine July 2002

Curcumin exerts multiple suppressive effects on human breast carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2002 Mar 10;98(2):234-40.

The inhibition of the estrogenic effects of pesticides and environmental chemicals by curcumin and isoflavonoids.
Environ Health Perspect 1998 Dec;106(12):807-12. "A combination of curcumin and isoflavonoids was able to inhibit the induced growth of ER-positive cells up to 95%. ...a mixture of curcumin and isoflavonoids is the most potent inhibitor against the growth of human breast tumor cells."


Breastfeeding and breast cancer – references
A list of scientific studies relating breastfeeding and the risk of breast cancer.

Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Lancet. 2002 Jul 20;360(9328):187-95. "The longer women breast feed the more they are protected against breast cancer. The lack of or short lifetime duration of breastfeeding typical of women in developed countries makes a major contribution to the high incidence of breast cancer in these countries."


Oxytocin modulates estrogen receptor alpha expression and function in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2002 Aug;21(2):375-8. Oxytocin (OT) inhibits the proliferation of MCF7 estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells, via specific OT receptors (OTR).

Oxytocin inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines. Virchows Arch. 1994;425(5):467-72.

The potential for oxytocin (OT) to prevent breast cancer: a hypothesis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1995 Aug;35(2):225-9.